Hygiene in the family budget
1. Sources and spread of pathogens in the household
The hygiene in the household is only in the last two decades the attention has been granted. However, in the domestic sphere infections are transmitted. The reason for this is that, increasingly, at home outpatient patient care and the proportion of old people who are at risk of infection, because of demographic changes significantly increasing. Moreover, household and family are the central elements of a society as a dynamic interaction between the household, its members, and municipal facilities such as schools, workplaces and community facilities for meals there. Against this background it has been recognized that the hygiene in the budget increased priority to be granted.
The aim of hygiene in the household is not the elimination of all microorganisms, but the reduction to a size where they no longer infect or inactivation of pathogens. In the household are risk areas of non-risk areas to be distinguished. Former should receive special attention. The contact should be harmless micro-organisms due to the stimulation of a healthy immune system can not be suppressed (Rook and Stanford 1998).
Among possible sources of infection in the household include animate and inanimate sources (reservoirs). Among the lively sources include family members, but also pets, inanimate sources to the contact surfaces, food, moisture reservoirs and household utensils.
The infection transmission in the household may be different ways:
* The direct contact between humans and animals on the hands is a common infection.
* The bacteria's own body can smear infection when they enter the body primarily uninhabited areas come to infection, where personal hygiene plays in preventing a major role.
* Food can be contaminated by gastro-intestinal infections are transmitted.
* There is the possibility of indirect transmission on land, many pathogens can be found on surfaces over a sufficiently long period to survive, under certain circumstances a risk of infection present (Bloomfield and Scott 1997). In particular, the contact surfaces of hands and cleaning utensils, and food plays a major role.
* An infection transmission over the air through the skin flakes or droplets during sneezing, coughing or speaking is also possible.
* Insects and pets can play a role in transmission of the infection in the household to play.
The risk of transmission of pathogens depends on several factors:
* Infective dose (number of transmitted pathogens),
* Pathogenic potential of the pathogen (virulence)
* Susceptibility of the host, newborns / infants, the elderly, pregnant women and persons with weakened immune defenses are at increased risk of infection,
* Residential density in the budget.
The reduction in the number of potential pathogens by the following measures can be achieved:
* Dry Cleaning: Washing hands and the cleaning of cooking and Essutensilien and surfaces.
* Heat: for washing, cleaning utensils, food.
* Chemical disinfectants.